The flexible cystoscope can be used purely for diagnosis or surveillance of bladder tumour, or to remove ureteric stents or inject botox into the bladder.
Under general or spinal anaesthetic, a rigid cystoscope can be used. This allows biopsies of any abnormal bladder tissue to be taken.
The risks of cystoscopy are low; they include infection, blood in the urine and pain when passing urine for a few days after the procedure.
More detail can be found in the information leaflets below: